At the end of the 90s in Europe, the new psychoactive substances (NPS) phenomenon was limited to a small number of molecules traded as “legal” replacements for controlled drugs. NPS were mostly circulating in rave parties and electronic music festivals. The globalization, the evolution of e-commerce and the growing popularity of NPS, facilitated the development of a wide illegal market in constant expansion. The dynamic nature of this phenomenon has led to an evolution in the prevention and monitoring of NPS trafficking within the European Union. The European legislative system has been amended with the aim of creating a faster and more effective regulatory system to tackle NPS diffusion and ban their sale and circulation. At the end of 2008, in compliance with the European Council Decision 2005/387/JHA, the Anti-Drug Policies Department of the Presidency of the Council of Ministers activated the National Early Warning System to promote a rapid exchange of information on NPS between Italy and the EU.