Sarcopenic obesity and hypertension in elderly patients: a narrative review of pathophysiology and management strategies

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Abstract

Introduction. Sarcopenic obesity and hypertension are a public health problem that is
increasing worldwide due to the progressive aging of the population and the increasing
prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. Sarcopenic obesity is characterized by the
simultaneous presence of sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass) and adiposity (increase in fat
mass). Because symptoms are not specific, sarcopenic obesity remains largely undiagnosed.
This review explores the latest research on sarcopenic obesity and its association with hypertension, with a focus on arterial stiffness.
Methods. A comprehensive narrative review was conducted by systematically searching
PubMed and Scopus databases for relevant scientific literature.
Results. Sarcopenic obesity and hypertension are closely linked, sharing common factors
such as inflammation, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress, with arterial stiffness playing a crucial role.
Discussion. Given the lack of specific symptoms for sarcopenic obesity, early diagnosis and management are crucial. Treatment strategies should prioritize weight loss, adequate protein intake, and regular physical activity. Further investigation is warranted for pharmacological interventions.
Conclusion. Sarcopenic obesity and hypertension present significant challenges to global
public health. Addressing arterial stiffness is paramount in managing these conditions effectively. Lifestyle modifications, including weight management and physical activity, remain central to the treatment of sarcopenic obesity, while additional research is needed
to explore potential pharmacological options.

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Authors

Mihaela Jurdana - Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Primorska

Lovro Žiberna

How to Cite
Jurdana, M., & Žiberna, L. (2023). Sarcopenic obesity and hypertension in elderly patients: a narrative review of pathophysiology and management strategies. Annali dell’Istituto Superiore Di Sanità, 59(3), 231–239. https://doi.org/10.4415/ANN_23_03_10
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