Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate associated risk factors for dysmenorrhea in a sample of Serbian university students. Methods. A case-control study was conducted among undergraduate students (n = 288) attending lectures during 2014/2015 academic year at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac. Results. The only significant associations were between dysmenorrhea and age at menarche (OR adjusted = 0.74; 95% CI 0.58-0.95; p = 0.017), family history of dysmenorrhea (OR adjusted = 3.39; 95% CI 1.74-6.63; p = 0.000), duration of menstrual flow (OR adjusted = 1.52; 95% CI 1.16-1.99; p = 0.002) and smoking at least one cigarette a day (OR adjusted = 5.09; 95% CI 1.83-14.15; p = 0.002). The factors associated with dysmenorrhea were not interacting with each other. Conclusion. Our results suggest that earlier age at menarche, longer duration of menstrual flow, prior family history of dysmenorrhea and smoking at least one cigarette a day are important risk factors associated with dysmenorrhea. Smoking cessation should be strongly encouraged.