Introduction. The relationship between extreme temperature and population health has been well documented. Our objective was to assess the evidence supporting an association between extreme temperature and work related injuries. Methods. We carried out a systematic search with no date limits using PubMed, the Cochrane central register of controlled trials, EMBASE, Web of Science and the internet sites of key organizations on environmental and occupational health and safety. Risk of bias was evaluated with Cochrane procedure. Results. Among 270 studies selected at the first step, we analyzed 20 studies according to inclusion criteria (4 and 16 referring to extreme cold and heat temperature, respectively). Discussion. Despite the relevance for policy makers and for occupational safety authorities, the associations between extreme temperature and work related injuries is seldom analyzed. The estimation of risk, the identification of specific jobs involved and the characterization of the complex mechanisms involved could help to define prevention measures.