Aim. This study investigates the incidence of long-term consequences in survivors of critical illness 6 months after ICU care. A retrospective analysis of the risk factors was also completed.
Methods. A mixed-method design was used. A qualitative design was used in the questionnaire study (phase 1), and a quantitative design was used for the retrospective study (phase 2).
Results. 116 patients were interviewed. Forty-eight patients (41.4%) reported at least one long-term consequence 6 months after ICU discharge. The most frequent consequences were anxiety (n = 33, 28.4%), depression (n = 32, 27.6%) and chronic pain (n = 24, 20.7%). The interview showed the concurrent caseness of PTSD, anxiety and depression in 14 (12.1%) patients. Observed risk factors were age > 60 years (OR = 2.65, IC = 1.23-5.69; p = 0.0119), trauma diagnosis (OR = 5.3, IC = 1.60-17.76; p = 0.0033), length of mechanical ventilation > 7 days (OR = 2.18, IC = 1-4.74; p = 0.0471) length of ICU stay > 10 days (OR = 2.47, IC = 1.16-5.26; p = 0.0185) and clinical conditions at the ICU admission. The quality of life score was lower if the respondent had long-term consequences.
Discussion. A high incidence of long-term consequences is found in survivors of critical illness. In future, studies that investigate interventions to prevent these issues after ICU care are need.