Long-term consequences in survivors of critical illness. Analysis of incidence and risk factors
Giuseppe Demoro, Vincenzo Damico, Liana Murano, Tatiana Bolgeo, Antonella D'Alessandro, Alberto Dal Molin
Aim. This study investigates the incidence of long-term consequences in survivors of critical illness 6 months after ICU care. A retrospective analysis of the risk factors was also completed.
Methods. A mixed-method design was used. A qualitative design was used in the questionnaire study (phase 1), and a quantitative design was used for the retrospective study (phase 2).
Results. 116 patients were interviewed. Forty-eight patients (41.4%) reported at least one long-term consequence 6 months after ICU discharge. The most frequent consequences were anxiety (n = 33, 28.4%), depression (n = 32, 27.6%) and chronic pain (n = 24, 20.7%). The interview showed the concurrent caseness of PTSD, anxiety and depression in 14 (12.1%) patients. Observed risk factors were age > 60 years (OR = 2.65, IC = 1.23-5.69; p = 0.0119), trauma diagnosis (OR = 5.3, IC = 1.60-17.76; p = 0.0033), length of mechanical ventilation > 7 days (OR = 2.18, IC = 1-4.74; p = 0.0471) length of ICU stay > 10 days (OR = 2.47, IC = 1.16-5.26; p = 0.0185) and clinical conditions at the ICU admission. The quality of life score was lower if the respondent had long-term consequences.
Discussion. A high incidence of long-term consequences is found in survivors of critical illness. In future, studies that investigate interventions to prevent these issues after ICU care are need.